While studying and interpreting law, it is important that a researcher or the author has a standard format for presenting the analysis. Once the method is chosen, it becomes easy for the person to align his/her thoughts according to the format and it provides for an easy reading too. These methods present the legal analysis in a format, wherein the readers can follow the line of reasoning and identify the significant parts. They also ensure that no imperative aspect of the analysis is skipped. These come in handy especially for the beginners. Some of these methods are:


  • The acronym stands for Issue, Rule, Application, Conclusion approach. It is the most used method to express legal analysis across the world.
  • Firstly, the issue or issues are segregated and culled out from the facts of the case. In case of an appeal, this can be done from the judgment of the lower court also.
  • Secondly, the rules, i.e., the laws that are applicable in the issue(s) are enunciated and expounded. The third step is application of the rules or the law applicable to the facts of the particular case and drawing a legal analogy or reasoning that leads up to the conclusion, which is the last and the fourth step.
  • Conclusion should clearly state the solution to the issue or the position that has been reasoned to be correct by the writer. IRAC is considered useful for writing law examinations.


  • CRRACC stands for Conclusion, Rule, Rule Proof, Application, Counterargument, Conclusion.
  • The Rule is the law sought from various legal authorities and the Rule Proof is nothing but explanation and deliberation upon the law.
  • Before arriving at the conclusion, Counter argument provides a window to test the Application part of your analysis. It means that approaches adverse to the ones taken up by the writer are also discussed which gives a heads up to the lawyer who is going to argue in the courtroom.
  • The Conclusion in the beginning of the CRRACC method states the legal position in a crisp and brief manner.


  • The only difference between IRAC and FIRAC is of the ‘F’, which stands for Facts.
  • FIRAC adds an important aspect to the IRAC method wherein important and relevant facts can be stated. The rest of the FIRAC method is similar to the IRAC method.

The article has been authored by Jaya Mitra